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Background[ edit ] Typically, Internet access is asymmetrical, supporting greater download speeds than upload speeds, limiting the bandwidth of each download, and sometimes enforcing bandwidth caps and periods where systems are not accessible. This creates inefficiency when many people want to obtain the same set of files from a single source; the source must always be online and must have massive outbound bandwidth. The BitTorrent protocol addresses this by decentralizing the distribution, leveraging the ability of people to network ” peer-to-peer “, among themselves.
Background[ edit ] Typically, Internet access is asymmetrical, supporting greater download speeds than upload speeds, limiting the bandwidth of each download, and sometimes enforcing bandwidth caps and periods where systems are not accessible. This creates inefficiency when many people want to obtain the same set of files from a single source; the source must always be online and must have massive outbound bandwidth.
The BitTorrent protocol addresses this by decentralizing the distribution, leveraging the ability of people to network ” peer-to-peer “, among themselves. Each file to be distributed is divided into small information chunks called pieces. Downloading peers achieve high download speeds by requesting multiple pieces from different computers simultaneously in the swarm.
Once obtained, these pieces are usually immediately made available for download by others in the swarm. In this way, the burden on the network is spread among the downloaders, rather than concentrating at a central distribution hub or cluster.
As long as all the pieces are available, peers downloaders and uploaders can come and go; no one peer needs to have all the chunks, or to even stay connected to the swarm in order for distribution to continue among the other peers. A small torrent file is created to represent a file or folder to be shared. The torrent file acts as the key to initiating downloading of the actual content.
Someone interested in receiving the shared file or folder first obtains the corresponding torrent file, either by directly downloading it, or by using a magnet link.
The user then opens that file in a BitTorrent client, which automates the rest of the process. Then the client connects directly to the peers in order to request pieces and otherwise participate in a swarm. The client may also report progress to trackers, to help the tracker with its peer recommendations.
When the client has all the pieces, they assemble them into a usable form. They may also continue sharing the pieces, elevating its status to that of seeder rather than ordinary peer. File structure[ edit ] A torrent file contains a list of files and integrity metadata about all the pieces, and optionally contains a list of trackers. A torrent file is a bencoded dictionary with the following keys the keys in any bencoded dictionary are lexicographically ordered: Each dictionary has the following keys: As SHA-1 returns a bit hash, pieces will be a string whose length is a multiple of 20 bytes.
If the torrent contains multiple files, the pieces are formed by concatenating the files in the order they appear in the files dictionary i. All strings must be UTF-8 encoded, except for pieces, which contains binary data. Extensions[ edit ] A torrent file can also contain additional metadata defined in extensions to the BitTorrent specification.
These extensions are under consideration for standardization. A trackerless torrent dictionary does not have an announce key. Instead, a trackerless torrent has a nodes key: Alternatively, the key could be set to a known good node such as one operated by the person generating the torrent.
A new key, announce-list, is placed in the top-most dictionary i. A new key, httpseeds, is placed in the top-most list i. This key’s value is a list of web addresses where torrent data can be retrieved: A new key, private, is placed in the info dictionary. This key’s value is 1 if the torrent is private: The purpose is to reduce the file size of torrent files, which reduces the burden on those that serve torrent files.
A torrent file using Merkle trees does not have a pieces key in the info list. This key’s value is the root hash of the Merkle hash:
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